Who Is Ibn Kathir ?
Ibn Kathir (Hafidz Imam Ibn Kathir) is one of the great scholars and teachers of interpretation among interpretators, perseverance, tenacity and sincerity in interpreting the Quran either sosio historist or in by mind, but he prefer quoting of previous scholars (past scholars) than using their minds except the opinion scholar’s doubt (eg taking of scribes), then he put his opinion. Ibn Kathir is one of the scholars commentary that intellect, cunning and clever the days of classical so that the fruit of his creation into modern times and placing his work as a phenomenal work from time to time has always been a reference the commentators. The leading interpreter of the Seventh Century Hijri Among Islamic scholars who live in the seventh century Hijra was Abu al-Fida ‘Ismail ibn Umar bin Kathir bin Zara’ ibn Kathir ad-Dimasyqi, or better known by the name Ibn Kathir only. He was born in a village in the Basra region in the year seven hundred and one hijriah. When he turn three years old, his father who became a teacher in his village, was died. He then raised and educated by his older brother named Abdul Wahhab. And when she was five years old, he was sent by his brother to Damascus to demand that the Islamic sciences. And from Damascus that he then started wandering to study to various cities inhabited by the Muslims.
Although at the time of the Islamic world was covered with a very sad tragedy, namely with their sadness faced on the nature of the savage Tartars Nation, where many scholars and the Muslims who were massacred, important books were destroyed, and the centers of civilization of Islam was destroyed, all that never kill his spirit to study engineering. Among the fears for the sake of fear that continues to terrorize, he’s a pedal step to study engineering to the scholars who are still remaining. In Damascus, he began to prepare and open his mind to be filled with the light of science. He went many places expert scholars of fiqh, hadith scholars, historians, and other scholars. At their gathering, he seemed so busy and busy to listen, record, understand, and memorize all the knowledge gained. In the science place, too, he’s known people as a student of knowledge an intelligent, diligent, and do not forget the many things he had learned. Among the names of the scholars who majlisnya always be visited by him is Ibn Farkah, Isa ibn al-Muth’im, Syahnah Ibn al-Hijar, Ibn Asaker, Ibn ash-Shirazi, Ishaq bin Yahya al-Amidi, Muhammad bin Zarrad, Yusuf ibn Zaki al-Mizzi, Ibn Taymiyyah, adh-Dhahabi, al-Ashbahani, etc..
In particular, he had concentrated on studying the hadith. Therefore it is not surprising that he then memorized collection of hadith as well as the length of his study, written by Ibn Hajib, when he was fifteen years old. Because of his love to the hadith that he also then learn, even married to the daughter of Yusuf ibn Zaki al-Mizzi. It was he doing to get more freedom to learn hadith hadith expert-in-law.
Ibn Kathir is the figure of a student of knowledge consistent with their knowledge. He wants his knowledge to function as a torch that lit up his tracks, as well as forming his attitude rather than as a means for show and search popularity. This was never proven when he had to bear a very heavy punishment from the government due to issue a fatwa on THALAQ (disperected between wife and housband), which adopted the opinion of Ibn Taymiyyah – teachers who are highly respected and loved and fatwa-fatwa much he claimed and followed – opposite the regulation of THALAQ set by the government.
In addition, he also graced his life with a noble traits like that are generally owned by the scholars. Such a lot of dhikr, taqwa, patience, ascetic, tawadlu ‘, and piety. He wants no compatibility between science and charity, so that their knowledge on the Day of Resurrection it will be a defense and instead become his enemies before the court of Allah SWT.
Ibn Habib has written about him, “Ibn Kathir was a religious leader who many continue prayer beads and prayers. He was also a prominent interpreters …”
During his life, he is widely known as a scholar who is an expert in the field of hadith, tafsir, fiqh, history, language, and literature. His expertise in various fields of science, other than he used to investigate the lives and shaping attitudes of his life, he also taught to the general public, specifically students who come to study him, and he wrote to the various books.
Until now, among the legacy that can still be found are books entitled Tafsir al-Qur’an al-Karim (consisting of ten volumes), al-an-wa Bidayat Nihayah (consisting of ten volumes), Jami ‘al- Masanid al-Asyrah (consisting of eight volumes), al-Ijtihad al-Jihad fi Thalabi, Proceedings of al-Jihad fi, lkhtishar as-Sira an-Nabawiyah, lkhtishar al-Ulum al-Hadith, al-fuqaha Thabaqat ash-Syafi ‘ iyin, at-ats Takmil Ma’rifati fi-Tsiqa adl wa-wa al-Majahil Dlu’afa, etc..
Book commentary entitled Tafsir al-Qur’an al-Karim it is the book value of interpretations that are not measurable. At first, he wrote this book to be ten volumes, but then printed into four volumes with a very thick binding, The method of writing his commentary is to interpret verses of the Koran with a verse of the Qur’an itself, the hadith, and that atsar isnaad he took from sources that could be accounted for authenticity, and the descriptions as necessary.
He also is a smart interpretator, diligent and conscientious in interpretating part of al-quran so it is not wrong if many scholars put his opinions and make referrals. Criticism and commentary on some interpretation of the verse is written in some book of commentary, which takes its interpretation of the scripture (which is already converted to Islam), which by some scholars commentary is not examined in advance or is not in commentary in his book, (eg in the thobary’s interpretation etc.) He provides commentary and criticism simply by different arguments and hadiths which he put forward, which ultimately makes the work he has been a masterpiece without being swallowed down the age and not set by the darkness of time.
1. Place, date of birth of Ibn Kathir
the historian has agreed, that Ibn Kathir was named by her parents Ismail, later dubbed by Abul Fida’, and hold Imaduddin. He as has been described by Ibn Hajar in his book “Inba, ul ghamer” Ibn Kathir is Ismail Omar Bin Bin Bin Dhou Kathir, al-damasqusy Zar’I Bin al-faqih Assyafi’I, Imaduddin Khotib Syihahabuddin Bin Ibn Kathir, As the opinion of the scholars, he was born in 701 AH, In the city of Basrah, Iraq. Ibn Kathir grow up among well educated family that he had known since childhood and get an important study. His father, Syihabuddin Abu Hafs ibn Umar was the preacher in the city of Basrah.
With his parents’ upbringing and supported by an adequate environment he grew into a smart kid about the religion of Islam and became a very good an opportunity to memorize the Quran at his parents, so it is natural if the sting at the age of young he had to memorize the Quran. While the IMU jurisprudence Sayfi’iyyah he also followed his father’s footsteps.
Imam Ibn Kathir who grew up in nice family educated since young have started to love and love to learn a variety of science for example, the days of his youth has memorized the Quran and the schools of Islamic knowledge and interpretationss, hadith lessons is engaged, the proposal fiqh, Islamic history complete with history, fiqh and legal, sirah, nahwu and shorrof dll.his father died when he was 3 years old, this time he was 3, when he reaches the age of 6 years, he began leaving the city of Basra to Damascus and stayed there for several years. In Damascus he met with leading scholars, namely Kamaluddin Abdul Wahab they both became very close friends with each other once so need each other and exchange thoughts and share experiences to large their respective knowledge, true words of the wise “seek friends who can give you knowledge and utilizing knowledge. ” The teachers he is no less flashy in the Islamic world, they are mostly large and prominent scholars, competent in their respective fields, so it is natural Ibn Kathir also follow in the footsteps of his teachers, some of his teachers are:
A. Ishaq bin Yahya Al-amady who died in 725 Hijri. Ibn Kathir much to learn from his knowledge hadith, he praised his teacher essay in the book “Bidayah Wannihayah” and say “He is a teacher of at-dhohiriyah hadith scholars, teachers are astute, intelligent and understands how fast way of teaching science to all students transferee denagn easy “. Although they are different schools of jurisprudence but still respect each other’s differences without hatred or fanatic against each of his madzhab, this is an example that has been in practicing by the teacher and students that should be good role models for us all. The difference is the grace and his own nice taste.
B. Abdul Wahab bin Dzu’bil al-asady or more famous known among scholars and kholaf salaf (classical and kontenporer) with the title Qodhi Sahbah son Kamaluddin, who was born in the year 726.H. He is a teacher Ibn Kathir in the field of science equipment, and shorrof nahwu and science of fiqh, etc., he is also known as an ascetic life and his behavior is a pretty good.
C. Imam Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya who died in 728 H. also includes teacher Imam Ibn Kathir, Ibn as such as opinion ‘Imad’ Ibn Kathir despite high knowledge but still commands respect and want to follow his teacher ”
D. Ibrahim Bin Abdurrahmanal-fazary better well known as Ibn Farkah
E. Mohammed Bin Hussain Bin Bina Syarfuddin Ghailan al-ba’labaqy was died in 730 H. In this he ever finished Ibn Kathir al-Quran recitation, When that Ibn Kathir was eleven years old And many more teachers he had took part in forming interpretator talent he became one of the respectable and respected. While the students he is the famous’ ala uddin Musa Bin Yahya and Shamsuddin Abul Muhasin etc. Najibiyah islamic school is the first cottage, he wrestled as well as professors at this cottage, teaching at the University Bany Umayyahs, this is the biggest universities in Damascus. The causes he took care it are: The main reason he wrote the book is because he argued that mandatory for all clergy (which are sufficient conditions 2nya) to interpretive, clarify and unlock an impasse because the Prophet did not interpretative ayat al-quran all by So al-quran verses yet on understanding by the Prophet Muhammad, as the opinion of the scholars that the Prophet did not interpret every verse of al-quran.
2. Its interpretation methodology
Manhaj, method and style in his interpretation of scripture knowing al-quran which is different from most other scholars, thus placing his interpretation is more widely used or more frequently so be the first place to be taken by ulama’, such as his book of Tafseer Quran’ Adzim or more well-known with Ibn Kathir. He explain many parts of al-quran with al-quran by Quran, explaining al-quran with hadith prophet, took the opinion of the friends where they know more about the caused history of al-quran down, given enough knowledge, knows much in al-quran and justice no doubt with the argument based on the Quran and hadith, he also took the tabi’in (who live and know shahabah) commentary and opinion. With thoroughness and perseverance, he was not directly take and make hadith or stories narrated by the scribes as interpretations that have been patented even he often commented on and even criticized by some commentators verses which he considered to be contrary to the basis of religion, for example Israîliyah and weak hadiths that many use to explain a particular verse, so that, israiîliyah and hadith maudhu (weak Hadith) ‘earlier, can eliminate the properties’ of prophets image.
Tafsir Ibn Kathir is the commentary category of Ma `tsûr (tekstual of past news from shahabah or tabiin) the most famous and ranked second after Tafseer ath-Thabariy. This commentary is also of interest to the terms of narration, which interprets Qur’aan by the hadiths and atsar-atsar (past document history) which rests directly to the speakers. The author is also very concerned about the mention of the verses are similar to the paragraph you want explains it, called the Tafsir al-Qur’an bi al-Qur `an (interpretation of the Qur’an by the Qur’an itself). Now, dreaming about a book as a compulsory book for lovers by news of past explaining. who want to get the commentary verses of the Koran which still refers to the understanding of the Scholars, written in a sharp and effective. So no doubt dreaming about the book is a valuable legacy to those Muslims who present later than their predecessors who lived in the seventeenth century Hijra. Great interest of the Muslims against this book can be seen from the number of this book are summarized by the people and he often reprinted.
In addition to dreaming about the book, in fact there are many more other books are no less important and weighty. As al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah, which is a history book written in it historic events that occurred on the first man, Adam, to the historic events in the year seven hundred and sixty-seven-Hijra. Also his book named by lkhtishar Ulum al-Hadith, etc..
In age, his parents, he was destined by God to lose his eyesight. And in the month of Sha’ban in seven hundred seventy-four-Hijra, at the age of seventy-three years, he passed away to Allah SWT for peace. Later he was buried in the cemetery ash-Shufiah, Damascus, on the tomb of a highly respected teacher and beloved, Ibn Taymiyyah.
If there is a story in the hadith or sourced from scribes who had converted to Islam, he did not directly take up and make an interpretation of the verse, because he was holding on to the hadith of the Prophet “don’t and trust them that you lied to her” like so many other interpretations made by scholars with without comment or criticism of the hadith, or narrative story-2 where it can make the reader if the book does not read any other interpretation would be wrong to understand the interpretation of verses of al-quran (eg Gharanik story, The Story of Prophet Yusuf As, As the story of Prophet Adam, Ibrahim As etc).
Many stories are sometimes contradictory to the base-2 eliminates the nature of religion and ‘ismah (self-protected) of the Prophets and Angels. Comments and criticism and interpretation is what distinguishes him and made many referrals from others, especially those relating to the interpretation of an ancient stories , although according to some scholars in the interpretation his stories of israi’iliyah also still exist without in comments and criticism of course without the deliberate by him (but very little). Sometimes he also explain and explore the verses of al-quran with result of his own thinking and in while trying to his mind explain a verse al-quran al-karim, but he does not prefer intellect and desires so that the fruit does not conflict with the basic thought (the proposal) and branch (Furu ‘) religion, (such as interpretation of philosophs, commentary bathhiniyah, qadiyaniyah etc, these prefer-2 interpretation sense of the books). He also quoted the cleric predecessor, which interpretations they are simply interpreting the verse in the hadith-hadith without the commentary and in the hadith naqod, he was again in the interpretation process and comment on or criticism. With a thoroughness in interpretation the verses of al-Quran by quoting from religious interpretations predecessor, he has a lot of comment on the hadith-hadith who interpret the verses of the Quran is.
References in the commentary he takes and stick to the Quran with Quran interpretation, hadith of the Prophet, the companions of his commentary and opinion but usually by tabi’in will also take from the book of commentary by book news such as Tafsir al-‘aufi, interpretations as-suda, Tafseer Qurtubi and Tafsir Ibn Abi hatim etc. his Results essay as follows: Tafsir al-Quran al-adzim (TafsirIbnu Kathir), Al-takmil, ul huda wassunan more well-known by jami’ul masanid, syaikhoin Musnad Abi Bakr and Umar, Bidayah Wannihayah is about stories and story full story denagn-theses, risalatun ljihad fi and many more essay of him.
Ibn kKatsir married to Zainab, he was the son of his teacher named Al-muzanna, she was the wife of a pious Hafidzah, of this marriage of Imam Ibn Kathir endowed boy who was named Muhammad, he also has much intelligence and talent like his father and memorized the Quran as well.
Death of Ibn Kathir
Historians no complaints all scholars agree in determining the death of this prominent scholar, he died on Thursday, the 26th month of Sha’ban 774 H. coincide with the year 1373 AD.